All posts by John Goerzen

Switching to xmonad + Gnome – and ditching a Mac

I have been using XFCE with xmonad for years now. I’m not sure exactly how many, but at least 6 years, if not closer to 10. Today I threw in the towel and switched to Gnome.

More recently, at a new job, I was given a Macbook Pro. I wasn’t entirely sure what to think of this, but I thought I’d give it a try. I found MacOS to be extremely frustrating and confining. It had no real support for a tiling window manager, and although projects like amethyst tried to approximate what xmonad can do on Linux, they were just too limited by the platform and were clunky. Moreover, the entire UI was surprisingly sluggish; maybe that was an induced effect from animations, but I don’t think that explains it. A Debisn stretch install, even on inferior hardware, was snappy in a way that MacOS never was. So I have requested to swap for a laptop that will run Debian. The strange use of Command instead of Control for things, combined with the overall lack of configurability of keybindings, meant that I was going to always be fighting muscle memory moving from one platform to another. Not only that, but being back in the world of a Free Software OS means a lot.

Now then, back to xmonad and XFCE situation. XFCE once worked very well with xmonad. Over the years, this got more challenging. Around the jessie (XFCE 4.10) time, I had to be very careful about when I would let it save my session, because it would easily break. With stretch, I had to write custom scripts because the panel wouldn’t show up properly, and even some application icons would be invisible, if things were started in a certain order. This took much trial and error and was still cumbersome.

Gnome 3, with its tightly-coupled Gnome Shell, has never been compatible with other window managers — at least not directly. A person could have always used MATE with xmonad — but a lot of people that run XFCE tend to have some Gnome 3 apps (for instance, evince) anyhow. Cinnamon also wouldn’t work with xmonad, because it is simply another tightly-coupled shell instead of Gnome Shell. And then today I discovered gnome-flashback. gnome-flashback is a Gnome 3 environment that uses the traditional X approach with a separate window manager (metacity of yore by default). Sweet.

It turns out that Debian’s xmonad has built-in support for it. If you know the secret: apt-get install gnome-session-flashback (OK, it’s not so secret; it’s even in xmonad’s README.Debian these days) Install that, plus gnome and gdm3 and things are nice. Configure xmonad with GNOME support and poof – goodness right out of the box, selectable from the gdm sessions list.

I still have some gripes about Gnome’s configurability (or lack thereof). But I’ve got to say: This environment is the first one I’ve ever used that got external display switching very nearly right without any configuration, and I include MacOS in that. Plug in an external display, and poof – it’s configured and set up. You can hit a toggle key (Windows+P by default) to change the configurations, or use the Display section in gnome-control-center. Unplug it, and it instantly reconfigures itself to put everything back on the laptop screen. Yessss! I used to have scripts to do this in the wheezy/jessie days. XFCE in stretch had numerous annoying failures in this area which rendered the internal display completely dark until the next reboot – very frustrating. With Gnome, it just works. And, even if you have “suspend on lid closed” turned on, if the system is powered up and hooked up to an external display, it will keep running even if the lid is closed, figuring you must be using it on the external screen. Another thing the Mac wouldn’t do well.

All in all, some pretty good stuff here. I continue to be impressed by stretch. It is darn impressive to put this OS on generic hardware and have it outshine the closed-ecosystem Mac!

The Joy of Exploring: Old Phone Systems, Pizza, and Discovery

This story involves boys pretending to be pizza deliverymen using a working automated Strowger telephone exchange demonstrator on display in a museum, which is very old and is, to my knowledge, the only such working exhibit in the world. (Yes, I have video.) But first, a thought on exploration.

There are those that would say that there is nothing left to explore anymore – that the whole earth is mapped, photographed by satellites, and, well, known.

I prefer to look at it a different way: the earth is full of places that billions of people will never see, and probably don’t even know about. Those places may be quiet country creeks, peaceful neighborhoods one block away from major tourist attractions, an MTA museum in Brooklyn, a state park in Arkansas, or a beautiful church in Germany.

Martha is not yet two months old, and last week she and I spent a surprisingly long amount of time just gazing at tree branches — she was mesmerized, and why not, because to her, everything is new.

As I was exploring in Portland two weeks ago, I happened to pick up a nearly-forgotten book by a nearly-forgotten person, Beryl Markham, a woman who was a pilot in Africa about 80 years ago. The passage that I happened to randomly flip to in the bookstore, which really grabbed my attention, was this:

The available aviation maps of Africa in use at that time all bore the cartographer’s scale mark, ‘1/2,000,000’ — one over two million. An inch on the map was about thitry-two miles in the air, as compared to the flying maps of Europe on which one inch represented no more than four air miles.

Moreover, it seemed that the printers of the African maps had a slightly malicious habit of including, in large letters, the names of towns, junctions, and villages which, while most of them did exist in fact, as a group of thatched huts may exist or a water hold, they were usually so inconsequential as completely to escape discovery from the cockpit.

Beyond this, it was even more disconcerting to examine your charts before a proposed flight only to find that in many cases the bulk of the terrain over which you had to fly was bluntly marked: ‘UNSURVEYED’.

It was as if the mapmakers had said, “We are aware that between this spot and that one, there are several hundred thousands of acres, but until you make a forced landing there, we won’t know whether it is mud, desert, or jungle — and the chances are we won’t know then!”

— Beryl Markham, West With the Night

My aviation maps today have no such markings. The continent is covered with radio beacons, the world with GPS, the maps with precise elevations of the ground and everything from skyscrapers to antenna towers.

And yet, despite all we know, the world is still a breathtaking adventure.

Yesterday, the boys and I were going to fly to Abilene, KS, to see a museum (Seelye Mansion). Circumstances were such that we neither flew, nor saw that museum. But we still went to Abilene, and wound up at the Museum of Independent Telephony, a wondrous place for anyone interested in the history of technology. As it is one of those off-the-beaten-path sorts of places, the boys got 2.5 hours to use the hands-on exhibits of real old phones, switchboards, and also the schoolhouse out back. They decided — why not? — to use this historic equipment to pretend to order pizzas.

Jacob and Oliver proceeded to invent all sorts of things to use the phones for: ordering pizza, calling the cops to chase the pizza delivery guys, etc. They were so interested that by 2PM we still hadn’t had lunch and they claimed “we’re not hungry” despite the fact that we were going to get pizza for lunch. And I certainly enjoyed the exhibits on the evolution of telephones, switching (from manual plugboards to automated switchboards), and such.

This place was known – it even has a website, I had been there before, and in fact so had the boys (my parents took them there a couple of years ago). But yesterday, we discovered the Strowger switch had been repaired since the last visit, and that it, in fact, is great for conversations about pizza.

Whether it’s seeing an eclipse, discovering a fascination with tree branches, or historic telephones, a spirit of curiosity and exploration lets a person find fun adventures almost anywhere.

The Eclipse

Highway US-81 in northern Kansas and southern Nebraska is normally a pleasant, sleepy sort of drive. It was upgraded to a 4-lane road not too long ago, but as far as 4-lane roads go, its traffic is typically light. For drives from Kansas to South Dakota, it makes a pleasant route.

Yesterday was eclipse day. I strongly suspect that highway 81 had more traffic that day than it ever has before, or ever will again. For nearly the entire 3-hour drive to Geneva, NE, it was packed — though mostly still moving at a good speed. And for our entire drive back, highway 81 and every other southbound road we used was so full it felt like rush hour in Dallas. (Well, not quite. Traffic was still moving.) I believe scenes like this were played out across the continent.

I’ve been taking a lot of photos, and writing about our new baby Martha lately. Now it’s time to write a bit about some more adventures with Jacob and Oliver – they’re now in third and fifth grades in school.

We had been planning to fly, and airports I called were either full, or were planning to park planes in the grass, or even shut down some runways to use for parking. The airport in the little town of Beatrice, NE (which I had visited twice before) was even going to have a temporary FAA control tower. At the last minute, due to some storm activity near home at departure time, we unloaded the plane and drove instead.

The atmosphere at the fairgrounds in Geneva was festive. One family had brought bubbles for their kids — and extras to share.

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I had bought the boys a book about the eclipse, which they were reading before and during the event. They were both great, safe users of their eclipse glasses.

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Jacob caught a toad, and played with it for awhile. He wanted to bring it home with us, but I convinced him to let me take a picture of him with his toad friend instead.

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While we were waiting for totality, a number of buses from the local school district arrived. So by the time the big moment arrived, we could hear the distant roar of delight and applause from the school children gathered at the far end of the field, plus all the excitement nearby. Both boys were absolutely ecstatic to be witnessing it (and so was I!) “Wow!” “Awesome!” And simple cackles of delight were heard. On the drive home, they both kept talking about how amazing it was, and it was “once in a lifetime.”

We enjoyed our “eclipse neighbors” – the woman from San Antonio next to us, the surprise discovery of another family from just a few miles from us parked two cars down, even running into relatives at a restaurant on the way home. The applause from all around when it started – and when it ended. And the feeling, which is hard to describe, of awe and amazement at the wonders of our world and our universe.

There are many problems with the world right now, but somehow there’s something right about people coming together from all over to enjoy it.

A new baby and deep smiles

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A month ago, we were waiting for our new baby; time seemed to stand still. Now she is here! Martha Goerzen was born recently, and she is doing well and growing! Laura and I have enjoyed moments of cuddling her, watching her stare at our faces, hearing her (hopefully) soft sounds as she falls asleep in our arms. It is also heart-warming to see Martha’s older brothers take such an interest in her. Here is the first time Jacob got to hold her:

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Oliver, who is a boy very much into sports, play involving police and firefighters, and such, has started adding “aww” and “she’s so cute!” to his common vocabulary. He can be very insistent about interrupting me to hold her, too.

Time, Frozen

We’re expecting a baby any time now. The last few days have had an odd quality of expectation: any time, our family will grow.

It makes time seem to freeze, to stand still.

We have Jacob, about to start fifth grade and middle school. But here he is, still a sweet and affectionate kid as ever. He loves to care for cats and seeks them out often. He still keeps an eye out for the stuffed butterfly he’s had since he was an infant, and will sometimes carry it and a favorite blanket around the house. He will also many days prepare the “Yellow House News” on his computer, with headlines about his day and some comics pasted in — before disappearing to play with Legos for awhile.

And Oliver, who will walk up to Laura and “give baby a hug” many times throughout the day — and sneak up to me, try to touch my arm, and say “doink” before running off before I can “doink” him back. It was Oliver that had asked for a baby sister for Christmas — before he knew he’d be getting one!

In the past week, we’ve had out the garden hose a couple of times. Both boys will enjoy sending mud down our slide, or getting out the “water slide” to play with, or just playing in mud. The rings of dirt in the bathtub testify to the fun that they had. One evening, I built a fire, we made brats and hot dogs, and then Laura and I sat visiting and watching their water antics for an hour after, laughter and cackles of delight filling the air, and cats resting on our laps.

These moments, or countless others like Oliver’s baseball games, flying the boys to a festival in Winfield, or their cuddles at bedtime, warm the heart. I remember their younger days too, with fond memories of taking them camping or building a computer with them. Sometimes a part of me wants to just keep soaking in things just as they are; being a parent means both taking pride in children’s accomplishments as they grow up, and sometimes also missing the quiet little voice that can be immensely excited by a caterpillar.

And yet, all four of us are so excited and eager to welcome a new life into our home. We are ready. I can’t wait to hold the baby, or to lay her to sleep, to see her loving and excited older brothers. We hope for a smooth birth, for mom and baby.

Here is the crib, ready, complete with a mobile with a cute bear (and even a plane). I can’t wait until there is a little person here to enjoy it.

First Experiences with Stretch

I’ve done my first upgrades to Debian stretch at this point. The results have been overall good. On the laptop my kids use, I helped my 10-year-old do it, and it worked flawlessly. On my workstation, I got a kernel panic on boot. Hmm.

Unfortunately, my system has to use the nv drivers, which leaves me with an 80×25 text console. It took some finagling (break=init in grub, then manually insmoding the appropriate stuff based on modules.dep for nouveau), but finally I got a console so I could see what was breaking. It appeared that init was crashing because it couldn’t find liblz4. A little digging shows that liblz4 is in /usr, and /usr wasn’t mounted. I’ve filed the bug on systemd-sysv for this.

I run root on ZFS, and further digging revealed that I had datasets named like this:

  • tank/hostname-1/ROOT
  • tank/hostname-1/usr
  • tank/hostname-1/var

This used to be fine. The mountpoint property of the usr dataset put it at /usr without incident. But it turns out that this won’t work now, unless I set ZFS_INITRD_ADDITIONAL_DATASETS in /etc/default/zfs for some reason. So I renamed them so usr was under ROOT, and then the system booted.

Then I ran samba not liking something in my bind interfaces line (to be fair, it did still say eth0 instead of br0). rpcbind was failing in postinst, though a reboot seems to have helped that. More annoying was that I had trouble logging into my system because resolv.conf was left empty (despite dns-* entries in /etc/network/interfaces and the presence of resolvconf). I eventually repaired that, and found that it kept removing my “search” line. Eventually I removed resolvconf.

Then mariadb’s postinst was silently failing. I eventually discovered it was sending info to syslog (odd), and /etc/init.d/apparmor teardown let it complete properly. It seems like there may have been an outdated /etc/apparmor.d/cache/usr.sbin.mysql out there for some reason.

Then there was XFCE. I use it with xmonad, and the session startup was really wonky. I had to zap my sessions, my panel config, etc. and start anew. I am still not entirely sure I have it right, but I at do have a usable system now.

Fixing the Problems with Docker Images

I recently wrote about the challenges in securing Docker container contents, and in particular with keeping up-to-date with security patches from all over the Internet.

Today I want to fix that.

Besides security, there is a second problem: the common way of running things in Docker pretends to provide a traditional POSIX API and environment, but really doesn’t. This is a big deal.

Before diving into that, I want to explain something: I have often heard it said the Docker provides single-process containers. This is unambiguously false in almost every case. Any time you have a shell script inside Docker that calls cp or even ls, you are running a second process. Web servers from Apache to whatever else use processes or threads of various types to service multiple connections at once. Many Docker containers are single-application, but a process is a core part of the POSIX API, and very little software would work if it was limited to a single process. So this is my little plea for more precise language. OK, soapbox mode off.

Now then, in a traditional Linux environment, besides your application, there are other key components of the system. These are usually missing in Docker containers.

So today, I will fix this also.

In my docker-debian-base images, I have prepared a system that still has only 11MB RAM overhead, makes minimal changes on top of Debian, and yet provides a very complete environment and API. Here’s what you get:

  • A real init system, capable of running standard startup scripts without modification, and solving the nasty Docker zombie reaping problem.
  • Working syslog, which can either export all logs to Docker’s logging infrastructure, or keep them within the container, depending on your preferences.
  • Working real schedulers (cron, anacron, and at), plus at least the standard logrotate utility to help prevent log files inside the container from becoming huge.

The above goes into my “minimal” image. Additional images add layers on top of it, and here are some of the features they add:

  • A real SMTP agent (exim4-daemon-light) so that cron and friends can actually send you mail
  • SSH client and server (optionally exposed to the Internet)
  • Automatic security patching via unattended-upgrades and needsrestart

All of the above, including the optional features, has an 11MB overhead on start. Not bad for so much, right?

From here, you can layer on top all your usual Dockery things. You can still run one application per container. But you can now make sure your disk doesn’t fill up from logs, run your database vacuuming commands at will, have your blog download its RSS feeds every few minutes, etc — all from within the container, as it should be. Furthermore, you don’t have to reinvent the wheel, because Debian already ships with things to take care of a lot of this out of the box — and now those tools will just work.

There is some popular work done in this area already by phusion’s baseimage-docker. However, I made my own for these reasons:

  • I wanted something based on Debian rather than Ubuntu
  • By using sysvinit rather than runit, the OS default init scripts can be used unmodified, reducing the administrative burden on container builders
  • Phusion’s system is, for some reason, not auto-built on the Docker hub. Mine is, so it will be automatically revised whenever the underlying Debian system, or the Github repository, is.

Finally a word on the choice to use sysvinit. It would have been simpler to use systemd here, since it is the default in Debian these days. Unfortunately, systemd requires you to poke some holes in the Docker security model, as well as mount a cgroups filesystem from the host. I didn’t consider this acceptable, and sysvinit ran without these workarounds, so I went with it.

With all this, Docker becomes a viable replacement for KVM for various services on my internal networks. I’ll be writing about that later.

Family Spring: A Story in Photos

This has been a spring with times to relax, times to be busy, times of anticipation of a new baby, and times of enjoying our family.

Rather than write a lot of words about it, I’m telling the story in photos.

To view, click here, then click Show Info in the upper right to see captions. You can pause it with the button in the lower left, and use arrow keys to advance.

Alternatively, there’s a captionless slideshow available here.

Here’s one photo to get you started:

Happy about the little sister on the way

Flying with my brothers

Picture one Sunday morning. Three guys are seemingly-randomly walking into a Mennonite church in rural Nebraska. One with long hair and well-maintained clothes from the 70s. Another dressed well enough to be preaching. And the third simply dressed to be comfortable, with short hair showing evidence of having worn a headset for a couple of hours that morning. This was the scene as we made a spur-of-the-moment visit to that church — which resulted in quite some surprise all around, since my brother knew a number of people there.

For instance:

Pastor: Peter! What are you doing here?

Peter: [jokingly] Is that how you greet visitors here?

And then, of course, Peter would say, “Well, we were flying home from South Dakota and figured we’d stop in at Beatrice for fuel. And drop in on you.” Followed by some surprise that we would stop at their little airport (which is quite a nice one).

This all happened because it was windy. This is the fun adventure of aviation. Sometimes you plan to go to Texas, but the weather there is terrible, so you discover a 100-year-old landmark in Indiana instead. Or sometimes, like a couple of weeks ago, we planned to fly straight home but spent a few hours exploring rural Nebraska.

The three of us flew to Sioux Falls, SD, in a little Cessna to visit my uncle and aunt up there. On our flight up, we stopped at the little airport in Seward, NE. It was complete with this unique elevated deck. In my imagination, this is used for people to drink beer while watching the planes land.

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In South Dakota, we had a weekend full of card and board games, horseshoes, and Crokinole with my uncle and aunt, who are always fun to visit. We had many memories of visits up there as children — and the pleasant enjoyment of the fact that we didn’t need an 8-hour drive to get there. We flew back with a huge bag of large rhubarb from their garden (that too is something of a tradition!)

It was a fun weekend to spend with my brothers — first time we’d been able to do this in a long while. And it marked the 11th state I’ve flown into, and over 17,000 miles of flying.

Is there any way to truly secure Docker container contents?

There is much to like about Docker. Much has been written about it, and about how secure the containerization is.

This post isn’t about that. This is about keeping what’s inside each container secure. I believe we have a fundamental problem here.

Earlier this month, a study on security vulnerabilities on Docker Hub came out, and the picture isn’t pretty. One key finding:

Over 80% of the :latest versions of official images contained at least on high severity vulnerability!

And it’s not the only one raising questions.

Let’s dive in and see how we got here.

It’s hard to be secure, but Debian makes it easier

Let’s say you want to run a PHP application like WordPress under Apache. Here are the things you need to keep secure:

  • WordPress itself
  • All plugins, themes, customizations
  • All PHP libraries it uses (MySQL, image-processing, etc.)
  • MySQL
  • Apache
  • All libraries MySQL or Apache use: OpenSSL, libc, PHP itself, etc.
  • The kernel
  • All containerization tools

On Debian (and most of its best-known derivatives), we are extremely lucky to have a wonderful security support system. If you run a Debian system, the combination of unattended-updates, needrestart, debsecan, and debian-security-support will help one keep a Debian system secure and verify it is. When the latest OpenSSL bug comes out, generally speaking by the time I wake up, unattended-updates has already patched it, needrestart has already restarted any server that uses it, and I’m protected. Debian’s security team generally backports fixes rather than just say “here’s the new version”, making it very safe to automatically apply patches. As long as I use what’s in Debian stable, all layers mentioned above will be protected using this scheme.

This picture is much nicer than what we see in Docker.

Problems

We have a lot of problems in the Docker ecosystem:

  1. No built-in way to know when a base needs to be updated, or to automatically update it
  2. Diverse and complicated vendor security picture
  3. No way to detect when intermediate libraries need to be updated
  4. Complicated final application security picture

Let’s look at them individually.

Problem #1: No built-in way to know when a base needs to be updated, or to automatically update it

First of all, there is nothing in Docker like unattended-updates. Although a few people have suggested ways to run unattended-updates inside containers, there are many reasons that approach doesn’t work well. The standard advice is to update/rebuild containers.

So how do you know when to do that? It is not all that obvious. Theoretically, official OS base images will be updated when needed, and then other Docker hub images will detect the base update and be rebuilt. So, if a bug in a base image is found, and if the vendors work properly, and if you are somehow watching, then you could be protected. There is work in this area; tools such as watchtower help here.

But this can lead to a false sense of security, because:

Problem #2: Diverse and complicated vendor security picture

Different images can use different operating system bases. Consider just these official images, and the bases they use: (tracking latest tag on each)

  • nginx: debian:stretch-slim (stretch is pre-release at this date!)
  • mysql: debian:jessie
  • mongo: debian:wheezy-slim (previous release)
  • apache httpd: debian:jessie-backports
  • postgres: debian:jessie
  • node: buildpack-deps:jessie, eventually depends on debian:jessie
  • wordpress: php:5.6-apache, eventually depends on debian:jessie

And how about a few unofficial images?

  • oracle/openjdk: oraclelinux:latest
  • robotamer/citadel: debian:testing (dangerous, because testing is an alias for different distros at different times)
  • docker.elastic.co/kibana: ubuntu of some sort

The good news is that Debian jessie seems to be pretty popular here. The bad news is that you see everything from Oracle Linux, to Ubuntu, to Debian testing, to Debian oldstable in just this list. Go a little further, and you’ll see Alpine Linux, CentOS, and many more represented.

Here’s the question: what do you know about the security practices of each of these organizations? How well updated are their base images? Even if it’s Debian, how well updated is, for instance, the oldstable or the testing image?

The attack surface here is a lot larger than if you were just using a single OS. But wait, it gets worse:

Problem #3: No way to detect when intermediate libraries need to be updated

Let’s say your Docker image is using a base that is updated immediately when a security problem is found. Let’s further assume that your software package (WordPress, MySQL, whatever) is also being updated.

What about the intermediate dependencies? Let’s look at the build process for nginx. The Dockerfile for it begins with Debian:stretch-slim. But then it does a natural thing: it runs an apt-get install, pulling in packages from both Debian and an nginx repo.

I ran the docker build across this. Of course, the apt-get command brings in not just the specified packages, but also their dependencies. Here are the ones nginx brought in:

fontconfig-config fonts-dejavu-core gettext-base libbsd0 libexpat1 libfontconfig1 libfreetype6 libgd3 libgeoip1 libicu57 libjbig0 libjpeg62-turbo libpng16-16 libssl1.1 libtiff5 libwebp6 libx11-6 libx11-data libxau6 libxcb1 libxdmcp6 libxml2 libxpm4 libxslt1.1 nginx nginx-module-geoip nginx-module-image-filter nginx-module-njs nginx-module-xslt ucf

Now, what is going to trigger a rebuild if there’s a security fix to libssl1.1 or libicu57? (Both of these have a history of security holes.) The answer, for the vast majority of Docker images, seems to be: nothing automatic.

Problem #4: Complicated final application security picture

And that brings us to the last problem: Let’s say you want to run an application in Docker. exim, PostgreSQL, Drupal, or maybe something more obscure. Who is watching for security holes in it? If you’re using Debian packages, the Debian security team is. If you’re using a Docker image, well, maybe it’s the random person that contributed it, maybe it’s the vendor, maybe it’s Docker, maybe it’s nobody. You have to take this burden on yourself, to validate the security support picture for each image you use.

Conclusion

All this adds up to a lot of work, which is not taken care of for you by default in Docker. It is no surprise that many Docker images are insecure, given this picture. The unfortunate reality is that many Docker containers are running with known vulnerabilities that have known fixes, but just aren’t, and that’s sad.

I wonder if there are any practices people are using that can mitigate this better than what the current best-practice recommendations seem to be?